Sunday, September 23, 2018

These Are the Four Personality Types That Exist, According to Science

Researchers from Northwestern University , Evanston, Illinois, United States, examined the data of more than 1.5 million respondents and found at least four distinct groups of personality types: middle, reserved, egocentric and role model. The findings challenge existing paradigms in psychology.
The new study, directed by Luís Amaral, from the McCormick School of Engineering, is detailed in an article published Monday in the journal 'Nature Human Behavior'. The findings may be of interest to hiring managers and mental health care providers.
People have tried to classify personality types since the time of Hippocrates, but previous scientific literature has found that it makes no sense, "explains co-author William Revelle, a professor of psychology at the Weinberg School of Arts and Sciences. , these data show that there are higher densities of certain personality types, "says Revelle, who specializes in Personality Measurement, Theory and Research.
However, initially, Revelle was skeptical of the premise of the study. The concept of personality types remains controversial in psychology, with hard-to-find scientific evidence. Previous attempts based on small research groups created results that were often not replicable.
Personality types only existed in the self-help literature and had no place in scientific journals, "says Amaral, professor of Chemical and Biological Engineering at Northwestern Engineering." Now, we believe that this will change because of this study, "he adds. .
The new research combined an alternative computational approach with data from four questionnaires with more than 1.5 million respondents from around the world obtained from John Johnson's 'IPIP-NEO' with 120 and 300 items, respectively, the 'myPersonality' project and the sets of data 'Big Personality Test' of BBC.

LOWER EGOCENTRISM WITH AGE

The questionnaires, developed by the research community for decades, have between 44 and 300 questions. The people voluntarily made the questionnaires 'online' attracted by the opportunity to receive comments on their own personal d. These data are now being made available to other researchers for independent analysis.
What is really great is that a study with such a large data set would not have been possible before the Internet - says Amaral -. Previously, researchers may have recruited undergraduate students on campus and maybe a few hundred people. Now, we have all these online resources available and data is shared. "
From these robust data sets, the team traced the five widely accepted basic personality traits : neuroticism, extraversion, openness, kindness, and conscientiousness.
After developing new algorithms, four groups emerged. The average, people who have high neuroticism and extraversion , but low openness. "I would expect that the typical person would be in this group," says Martin Gerlach, a postdoctoral researcher in Amaral's lab and the first author of the article. Women are more likely than men to fall into the average type.
The reserved type is emotionally stable, but not open or neurotic. They are not especially extraverted, but are in some way pleasant and conscientious. The models to follow have a low score in neuroticism and high in all other traits. The probability that someone is a role model increases dramatically with age. "They are reliable people and are open to new ideas," says Amaral, "they are good people to be in charge of things, in fact, life is easier if you have more relationships with the role models." It is likely that more women than men are role models.
The egocentric group is formed by self-centered people who have a very high score in extraversion and are below average in frankness, kindness and scrupulosity . "These are people you do not want to hang out with," Revelle acknowledges. There is a very dramatic decrease in the number of egocentric types as people get older, both in the case of women and men.

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